נושאי הלימוד במכינה
(הרשימה הינה חלקית, את הסילבוס המלא ניתן לקבל בפגישות הייעוץ במכללה)
The diversity of polymers. Carbohydrates. Proteins. Nucleic acids. Lipids.
Cell surface structures. Motility. Internal organization and DNA (nucleoid, plasmids). Binary fission and conjugation in bacteria.
Plasma Membrane. Compartmentalization. Cytoskeleton. Endomembrane system: endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi Apparatus and lysosomes. The Nucleus. Ribosomes. Mitochondria.
Cell junctions. Local and long distant signaling. Chemical messengers. Receptors. The stages of cell signaling.
Catabolic pathways and production of ATP. The stages of cellular respiration (glycolysis, oxidation of puryvate, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation). Anaerobic respiration. Types of fermentation.
Structure of viruses. General features of viral replication cycles. Viroids and prions. Viral diseases. Emerging viruses.
Cell surface structures. Motility. Internal organization. Reproduction and adaptation. Diverse nutritional and metabolic adaptation – oxygen and nitrogen metabolism, cooperation. The role in the biosphere (chemical recycling, ecological interactions). Beneficial and harmful impacts of Prokaryotes on humans.
Structural and functional diversity in Protists. Role of Protists in ecological communities
Nutrition and Ecology. Body structure. Sexual and asexual reproduction. Fungi as pathogens. Practical uses of fungi.
The chromosomal basis of sex. Inheritance of X- and Y-linked genes. Alternation of chromosome number and structure. Human disorders due to chromosomal alternation. Inheritance of organelle genes. DNA as genetic material. Structural model of DNA. Chromosomes’ structure.
The flow of genetic information. Replication: base paring to a template strain, synthesis of new DNA strands. Transcription: molecular components of transcription, posttranscriptional modifications (alternation of mRNA ends, RNA splicing). Translation: molecular components of the process. Building of polypeptide. Genetic code. Type of mutations. Regulation of Gene Expression (promoters, transcription factors).
Structure and physiology of: connective, muscle, epithelial and nervous tissue; serous, mucous, synovial and cutaneous membranes
Hearing and equilibrium. Visual perception. Taste. Smell. Types of sensory receptors.
Organization of nervous system. The central nervous system. The organization of human brain. Peripheral nervous system: motor and autonomic nervous system. Glia. Blood-brain barrier. Nervous system disorders.
Neurons structure and function. Resting and action potential. Conduction of action potentials. Postsynaptic potential. Neurotransmitters.
Intercellular communication. Endocrine tissues and organs. Chemical classes of hormones. Multiple effects of hormones. Simple hormone pathways. Feedback regulation
Organization of human circulatory system. Heart and heart’s rhythmic beat. Blood vessels structure and function. Blood pressure. Blood composition and function.
. Organization of human respiratory system. Negative pressure breathing. Hemoglobin.
Essential nutrients. Dietary deficiencies. Organization of human digestive system. Chemical digestion in the human digestive system. Dental adaptation.
Female and male reproductive anatomy. Hormonal control of reproductive system. Gametogenesis. Conception. Embryonic development. Birth.
Excretory organs. Kidney structure. Nephron organization and function. Kidney function, water balance and blood pressure.
Atomic theory Elements and atomic number Isotopes and atomic weight
The periodic table and some characteristics of different groups Electronic structure of atoms and electron configurations Electron configurations and the periodic table Electron-dot symbols
The octet rule ions and ionic bonds Periodic properties, ion formation formulas, naming ionic compounds Some properties of ionic compounds H + and OH – ions: an introduction to acids and bases
Covalent bonds and the periodic table Multiple covalent bonds and coordinate covalent bonds Characteristics of molecular compounds Molecular formulas and Lewis structures Polar covalent bonds and electronegativity, polar molecules Naming binary molecular compounds 5. Classification and Balancing of Chemical Reactions Classes of chemical reactions Chemical equations and balancing chemical equations Acids, bases, and neutralization reactions Redox reactions.
The mole and Avogadro’s number Gram–mole conversions.
Endothermic and exothermic chemical reactions Factors that influence chemical reaction rates Chemical equilibrium Equilibrium constants.
Radioactivity Radioactive half-life.
Metric system of units Metric units of length Metric units of mass Metric units of volume Significant figures.
- Law of conservation of mass.
- Law of definite proportions.
- Law of multiple proportions
Mole concept and chemical formulas Calculations involving chemical equations Calculations involving volume and concentration
Mixtures and solutions Units of concentration DilutionIons in solution: electrolytes
Acids and bases in aqueous solution, some common acids and bases The Brønsted–Lowry definition of acids and bases Acid dissociation constants. Acid and base strength Some common acid–base reactions Acidity and basicity of salt solutions
Measuring acidity in aqueous solution: pH Buffer solutions Titration
The nature of organic molecules The structure of organic molecules: alkanes and their isomers Drawing organic structures The shapes of organic molecules Naming alkanes Properties of alkanes Reactions of alkanes
Drawing and naming cycloalkanes
Alkenes and alkynes Naming alkenes and alkynes The structure of alkenes: cis–trans isomerism Properties of alkenes and alkynes Types of organic reactions Reactions of alkenes and alkynes
Alkene polymers Aromatic compounds and the structure of benzene Naming aromatic compounds Reactions of aromatic compounds
Some common alcohols Naming alcohols Properties of alcohols, acidity of alcohols Reactions of alcohols
Some common phenols Acidity of phenols
Ethers Thiols and disulfides Halogen-containing compounds
Properties of amines Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds Basicity of amines
The carbonyl group Naming aldehydes Properties of aldehydes Some Common aldehydes Oxidation of aldehydes Reduction of aldehydes
Naming ketones Properties of ketones Some Common ketones Reduction of ketones
Carboxylic acids and their derivatives: properties and names Some common carboxylic acids Acidity of carboxylic acids Reactions of carboxylic acids: ester and amide formation Hydrolysis of esters and amides
Amino acids structures Acid–base properties of amino acids Chemical properties of proteins
Catalysis by enzymes How enzymes work Vitamins and minerals
Classification of carbohydrates The D and L families of sugars: drawing sugar molecules Structure of glucose Disaccharides, structure of maltose Some important polysaccharides Properties of carbohydrates
Structure and classification of lipids Fatty acids and their esters Properties of fats and oils
DNA, chromosomes, and genes Composition of nucleic acids The structure of nucleic acid chains Base pairing in DNA: the Watson–Crick model
Force, mass, Newton's 1st, 2nd and 3rd law Free-body diagrams Contact forces: normal force and friction force Linear momentum, impulse, conservation of momentum Elastic and inelastic collisions, center of mass, translational motion
Electric current, Ohm’s law , electrical resistance and resistors Electric power EMF and terminal voltage. Resistors in series and parallel, Kirchhoff’s rules
Electric charge, static electricity, induced charge, electric field, field lines, electric potential, equipotential lines, voltage, Coulomb’s law Electric field, conductors and dielectrics, charge distribution Capacitance, storage of electric energy, capacitors in series and in parallel