The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules.
The diversity of polymers. Carbohydrates. Proteins. Nucleic acids. Lipids.
Prokaryotic cell structure and function.
Cell surface structures. Motility. Internal organization and DNA (nucleoid, plasmids). Binary fission and conjugation
Eukaryotic cell structure and function.
Plasma Membrane. Compartmentalization. Cytoskeleton. Endomembrane system: endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi
Apparatus and lysosomes. The Nucleus. Ribosomes. Mitochondria.
Cell junctions. Local and long distant signaling. Chemical messengers. Receptors. The stages of cell signaling.
Mitosis and meiosis. Cellular organization of genetic material. Phases of cell cycle. The mitotic spindle. Cytokinesis.
Cellular organization of genetic material. The stages of mitosis and meiosis. A comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis.
Origins of genetic variation among offspring.
Cellular respiration and fermentation.
Catabolic pathways and production of ATP. The stages of cellular respiration (glycolysis, oxidation of puryvate,
citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation). Anaerobic respiration. Types of fermentation.
Structure of viruses. General features of viral replication cycles. Viroids and prions. Viral diseases. Emerging
Bacteria and Archaea.
Cell surface structures. Motility. Internal organization. Reproduction and adaptation. Diverse nutritional and
metabolic adaptation – oxygen and nitrogen metabolism, cooperation. The role in the biosphere (chemical
recycling, ecological interactions). Beneficial and harmful impacts of Prokaryotes on humans.
Structural and functional diversity in Protists. Role of Protists in ecological communities.
Nutrition and Ecology. Body structure. Sexual and asexual reproduction. Fungi as pathogens. Practical uses of fungi.
Chromosomal and Molecular Basis of Inheritance.
The chromosomal basis of sex. Inheritance of X- and Y-linked genes. Alternation of chromosome number and
structure. Human disorders due to chromosomal alternation. Inheritance of organelle genes. DNA as genetic
material. Structural model of DNA. Chromosomes’ structure.
The flow of genetic information. Replication: base paring to a template strain, synthesis of new DNA strands.
Transcription: molecular components of transcription, posttranscriptional modifications (alternation of mRNA
ends, RNA splicing). Translation: molecular components of the process. Building of polypeptide. Genetic code. Type
Regulation of Gene Expression (promoters, transcription factors).
Tissues and body membranes.
Structure and physiology of: connective, muscle, epithelial and nervous tissue; serous, mucous, synovial and
Hearing and equilibrium. Visual perception. Taste. Smell. Types of sensory receptors.
Organization of nervous system. The central nervous system. The organization of human brain. Peripheral nervous
system: motor and autonomic nervous system. Glia. Blood-brain barrier. Nervous system disorders.
Neurons, synapses and signaling.
Neurons structure and function. Resting and action potential. Conduction of action potentials. Postsynaptic
Hormones and endocrine system.
Intercellular communication. Endocrine tissues and organs. Chemical classes of hormones. Multiple effects of
hormones. Simple hormone pathways. Feedback regulation.
Immune system. Innate and adaptive immunity.
Antigen. Antibody. The humoral immune response. The cell-mediated immune response. Inflammatory response.
Immunological memory. Allergies. Immunization (vaccination).
Organization of human circulatory system. Heart and heart’s rhythmic beat. Blood vessels structure and function.
Blood pressure. Blood composition and function.
Organization of human respiratory system. Negative pressure breathing. Hemoglobin.
Digestive system and nutrition.
Essential nutrients. Dietary deficiencies. Organization of human digestive system. Chemical digestion in the human
digestive system. Dental adaptation.
Human reproduction and development.
Female and male reproductive anatomy. Hormonal control of reproductive system. Gametogenesis. Conception.
Embryonic development. Birth.
Osmoregulation and excretion
.Excretory organs. Kidney structure. Nephron organization and function. Kidney function, water balance and blood pressure.
Elements and atomic number
Isotopes and atomic weight
The Periodic Table
The periodic table and some characteristics of different groups
Electronic structure of atoms and electron configurations
Electron configurations and the periodic table
The octet rule ions and ionic bonds
Periodic properties, ion formation formulas, naming ionic compounds
Some properties of ionic compounds
H + and OH –
ions: an introduction to acids and bases
Covalent bonds and the periodic table
Multiple covalent bonds and coordinate covalent bonds
Characteristics of molecular compounds
Molecular formulas and Lewis structures
Polar covalent bonds and electronegativity, polar molecules
Naming binary molecular compounds
5. Classification and Balancing of Chemical Reactions
Classes of chemical reactions
Chemical equations and balancing chemical equations
Acids, bases, and neutralization reactions
Mole and Mass Relationships
The mole and Avogadro’s number
Reaction Rates and Chemical Equilibria.
Endothermic and exothermic chemical reactions
Factors that influence chemical reaction rates
Metric system of units
Metric units of length
Metric units of mass
Metric units of volume
Fundamental Chemical Laws
Law of conservation of mass
Law of definite proportions
Law of multiple proportions
Mole concept and chemical formulas
Calculations involving chemical equations
Calculations involving volume and concentration
Mixtures and solutions
Units of concentration
DilutionIons in solution: electrolytes
Acids and Bases
Acids and bases in aqueous solution, some common acids and bases
The Brønsted–Lowry definition of acids and bases
Acid dissociation constants. Acid and base strength
Some common acid–base reactions
Acidity and basicity of salt solutions
Measuring acidity in aqueous solution: pH
Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes
The nature of organic molecules
The structure of organic molecules: alkanes and their isomers
Drawing organic structures
The shapes of organic molecules
Properties of alkanes
Reactions of alkanes
Drawing and naming cycloalkanes
Alkenes and Alkynes
Alkenes and alkynes
Naming alkenes and alkynes
The structure of alkenes: cis–trans isomerism
Properties of alkenes and alkynes
Types of organic reactions
Reactions of alkenes and alkynes
Aromatic compounds and the structure of benzene
Naming aromatic compounds
Reactions of aromatic compounds
Some common alcohols
Properties of alcohols, acidity of alcohols
Reactions of alcohols
Some common phenols
Acidity of phenols
Some Compounds with Oxygen, Sulfur, or a Halogen
Thiols and disulfides
Properties of amines
Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds
Basicity of amines
The carbonyl group
Properties of aldehydes
Some Common aldehydes
Oxidation of aldehydes
Reduction of aldehydes
Properties of ketones
Some Common ketones
Reduction of ketones
Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives
Carboxylic acids and their derivatives: properties and names
Some common carboxylic acids
Acidity of carboxylic acids
Reactions of carboxylic acids: ester and amide formation
Hydrolysis of esters and amides
Amino Acids and Proteins
Amino acids structures
Acid–base properties of amino acids
Chemical properties of proteins
Enzymes and Vitamins
Catalysis by enzymes
How enzymes work
Vitamins and minerals
Classification of carbohydrates
The D and L families of sugars: drawing sugar molecules
Structure of glucose
Disaccharides, structure of maltose
Some important polysaccharides
Properties of carbohydrates
Structure and classification of lipids
Fatty acids and their esters
Properties of fats and oils
Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis
DNA, chromosomes, and genes
Composition of nucleic acids
The structure of nucleic acid chains
Base pairing in DNA: the Watson–Crick model
Force, mass, Newton's 1st, 2nd and 3rd law
Contact forces: normal force and friction force
Linear momentum, impulse, conservation of momentum
Elastic and inelastic collisions, center of mass, translational motion
Ohm’s law , electrical resistance and resistors
EMF and terminal voltage.
Resistors in series and parallel, Kirchhoff’s rules
Electric charge, static electricity, induced charge, electric field, field lines, electric potential, equipotential lines,
Electric field, conductors and dielectrics, charge distribution
Capacitance, storage of electric energy, capacitors in series and in parallel